Design Patterns and Practices in .Net: Option Functional Type in C#

Dealing with nulls in the code using the optional type.

Functional programming uses the option type widely, in languages such as Haskell, F#, Scala and a lot more. In this language it’s a convention to return a value when the function fails. The following example is a function written in F#, to show how the option type works:

(* This function uses pattern matching to deconstruct Options *)
let compute = function
  | None   -> "No value"
  | Some x -> sprintf "The value is: %d" x

printfn "%s" (compute <| Some 42)(* The value is: 42 *)
printfn "%s" (compute None)      (* No value         *)

We have no equivalent of the option type in the C# language , but we can try to emulate it.

In my last post, I discussed two design patterns, Null Object and the Special Case Object. The goal of these patterns are to return a special object instead of return null. If you didn’t read that post, go check it and come back to this post.

The idea in this post is to show the implementation of the option type in C#.


The problem is similar to my last post, in fact it’s the continuation of that same problem.

public IProduct GetProductById(int productId)
    Product product = _productRepository.GetProductById(productId);

    if(product == null)
        return new ProductNotFound();

    return product;

Here, we have a method that returns a product based on the id, if the database not founds the product, it returns a special object called ProductNotFound.

Both Product and ProductNotFound inherits from the same interface named IProduct.

This is not a complex problem, I’m using it to illustrate my point.

Implementing the Option Type

The implementation of the option type is pretty straightforward, but before that, I want to say that the implementation that I’m going to show is not mine, but this is one of the best and simpler implementations that I saw for C#.

First time a saw this implementation was in a pluralsight course, Tactical Design Patterns in .NET: Control Flow by Zoran Horvat, a great course about writing simpler code by applying design patterns and coding practices that affects the control flow of the application. If you have a pluralsight subscription go check the course, and other courses by the great author Zoran Horvat.

So, here’s is the implementation:

public class Option<T> : IEnumerable<T>
    private readonly T[] _data;

    private Option(T[] data)
        _data = data;

    public static Option<T> Create(T element)
        return new Option<T>(new T[] { element });

    public static Option<T> CreateEmpty()
        return new Option<T>(new T[0]);

    public IEnumerator<T> GetEnumerator()
        return ((IEnumerable<T>) _data).GetEnumerator();

    IEnumerator IEnumerable.GetEnumerator()
        return GetEnumerator();

The idea behind this implementation is to have an object that can hold one or none object. A list is almost what we want, list can have multiple elements or zero elements. So, the Option<T> implements the IEnumerable<T> interface, by doing this we can work with this option type as if we are working with a list (more on that later).

The Option<T> is a genetic class and T will be the object that we want to be our option. We have a property _data, which is an array that will hold the object.

Create the object with one element or zero element is the goal, to allow it, this class have a private constructor, and two static methods responsible for the object creation. The CreateEmpty() method, which creates a new option with an empty object, and the Create(T element) method, that receives a T object via parameter and create the option with one object.

To finish this section, we have two more methods in this class, the GetEnumerator() methods. Our class inherits these methods from the IEnumerable interface and implement both.

Using the option type

Now we can use the option type to solve our problem.

First thing to do is to change the ProductRepository method GetProductById return’s type to Option<Product>:

public class ProductRepository : IProductRepository
    //..Other Details

    public Option<Product> GetProductById(int productId)
        var product = _data.FirstOrDefault(x => x.Id == productId);

        if (product == null)
            return Option<Product>.CreateEmpty();

        return Option<Product>.Create(product);

As you can see, if the database not founds the product, we use the CreateEmpty() method to create an empty instance of the Option<Product> and if the product exists, we use the Create() method to create an instance of the Option<Product> with the product found. Also, we change the method’s return to Option<Product>.

Back in the main method, we need to update it to use of the option type. We make minor changes to the method:

public IProduct GetProductById(int productId)
    Option<Product> product = _productRepository.GetProductById(productId);

    if(product.Any() == false)
        return new ProductNotFound();

    return product.Single();

The difference is subtle, we change the return type from the repository method to OptionType<Product>. The verification to see if the product is null, is now verifying if the option is empty, and return the ProductNotFound object as usual. In the return the only difference is that we have to explicit say that we want to return the Product using .Single(), which return the only element in the option type.

Now you may ask: How is this better than returning null?

I reply with: This is the same thing as returning null.

In this code, there no real benefit of using the Option type, because we still have to verify if the option has a value or is empty. Here’s the trick, Linq, with Linq we could make this code in “one” line, using the option type and our special case object.

Linq is a powerful C# library which extends the capability of list object, every object in C# that inherits from IEnumerable can use Linq.

The final version of the GetProductById method:

public IProduct GetProductById(int productId)
        .DefaultIfEmpty<IProduct>(new ProductNotFound())

See how simple the code become?

In one line of code we are able to use the option type and our special case object, and is much easier to understand than the old version.

What’s happening here is that we search the product as usual, and using the DefaultIfEmpty method from Linq, we are able to say that if the product does not exist in the database, we return a new instance of the ProductNotFound object. Finally, Single method return the product instance.


To wrap it up, in this post I show you an implementation of the functional type in C#. There’re other implementations of the option type around the internet but this implementation is good because of its simplicity. Inherit from the IEnumerable interface address the problem of nulls, because a list has an element or is empty. Having two methods, one to create an empty object and other to create the option object with one element, allow us to never return a null reference.

Combining the option type with Linq made our code clean and easy to understand. Linq can provide a lot of functionality for the option type, I only scratch the surface in this post.

References and readings

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